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Article types

You can add more article types to the sidebar using the Additional Filters button. The complete list of MEDLINE publication types is available. Systematic review articles are retrieved using a search strategy.

These filters may exclude some citations that have not yet completed the MEDLINE indexing process.

Search History

Your PubMed search history appears on the Advanced Search page under History. This feature requires your web browser to accept cookies.

Descriptions of each column in the History table appear below:

  • Search: Searches are numbered in chronological order.
    • Search numbers may be used in place of the search string itself when combining queries (e.g., #1 OR #2).
    • A repeated query will move to the top of History but will retain its original numbering.
    • History is limited to the last 100 searches. Once the maximum number is reached, PubMed will remove the oldest search from history and add the most current search.
  • Actions: Add, delete, or save a query. Adding queries from History places the search string into the Query box to be used in the next search. Deleting a query removes it from History.
  • Query: This column shows previous search strings as entered by the user.
  • Details: PubMed may modify or add search terms to a search to optimize retrieval, e.g., using automatic term mapping. Click the chevron icon " > " to expand search details and see how the search was translated.
  • Results: The total number of citations retrieved for that query. Click the number to run the search and see the results in PubMed.
  • Time: Timestamp of when the search was conducted.
  • Download: Click Download to generate a CSV file of current History items.
  • Delete: Click "Delete" to remove all queries from History; otherwise, History expires after 8 hours of inactivity.


Subject filters restrict retrieval to specific subjects, such as:

  • AIDS
  • Cancer
  • Systematic Reviews

To add these subjects to the sidebar, use the Additional Filters button.

Subjects use a specialized search strategy. More subject filters and the subject filter search strategies are available at PubMed Subject Filters.

Subjects can also be searched using aids[sb] or cancer[sb]. The Systematic Reviews filter is also included with the Article Type filters.

Journal Categories

Select journal categories can be added to the sidebar using the Additional Filters button:

  • Dental journals
  • Nursing journals

The Journal/Citation subsets restrict retrieval to specialized journals or articles on specialized topics in other journals. The table below lists the journal subsets, along with the code used for searching. Some subsets are closed and are no longer being assigned to current data.

To search for a Journal/Citation subset, enter in the search box: jsubset?, where ? represents the subset code. The Journal/Citation subset does not require a search tag.

Subset Code Journal/Citation Subset
AIM Abridged Index Medicus is a list created in 1970 of approximately 120 core clinical English language journals that corresponds to "Core clinical journals" journal category selection in filters.
D Dentistry journals
E Citations from bioethics journals or selected bioethics citations from other journals
H Health administration journals, non-Index Medicus
IM Index Medicus journals
K Consumer health journals
N Nursing journals
Q History of medicine journals and selected citations from other journals
QIS Citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of history of medicine
S Citations from space life sciences journals and selected space life sciences citations from other journals
T Health technology assessment journals, non-Index Medicus
X AIDS/HIV journals (selected citations from other journals 1980-2000)


You can add age filters to the sidebar using the Additional Filters button.

Age filters include:

  • Child: birth-18 years
  • Newborn: birth-1 month
  • Infant: birth-23 months
  • Infant: 1-23 months
  • Preschool Child: 2-5 years
  • Child: 6-12 years
  • Adolescent: 13-18 years
  • Adult: 19+ years
  • Young Adult: 19-24 years
  • Adult: 19-44 years
  • Middle Aged + Aged: 45+ years
  • Middle Aged: 45-64 years
  • Aged: 65+ years
  • 80 and over: 80+ years

These filters may exclude some citations because they have not yet completed the MEDLINE indexing process.



You can use filters to narrow your search results by article type, text availability, publication date, species, language, sex, subjectjournal category, and age.

To apply a filter:

  1. Run a search in PubMed.
  2. Click the filter you would like to activate from the sidebar. A check mark will appear next to the activated filter(s). 
  3. Subsequent searches will be filtered until the selected filters are turned off, or until your browser data is cleared.

The most popular filters are included on the sidebar by default. To display additional filters on the sidebar:

  1. Click the "Additional filters" button.
  2. A pop-up menu will appear showing the available filters for each category: article type, species, language, sex, subject, journal, and age.
  3. Choose a category from the list of options on the left side of the menu: Article Type, Species, etc.
  4. Within each category, select the filters you would like to add to the sidebar.
  5. Click Apply. This will close the pop-up menu and display your selections on the sidebar with the other filters.
  6. If you would like to cancel your selections, click Cancel or click on the X in the upper right corner to close the pop-up and return to your search results.
  7. To apply the filter(s) to your search, click the filter(s) on the sidebar. 

More information about filters:

  • When filters are selected a "Filters applied" message will display on the results page.
  • Click an applied filter to turn it off. 
  • To turn off all applied filters, click the "Clear all" link or the "Reset all filters" button.
  • Citations may be excluded for some filter selections because they have not yet completed the MEDLINE indexing process.
  • You can also activate additional filters with My NCBI filters.

Similar Articles

The abstract page for a citation includes links to PubMed citations for similar articles. The "See all similar articles" link will retrieve a pre-calculated set of PubMed citations that are closely related to the selected article:

  • Similar articles are displayed in ranked order from most to least relevant, with the "linked from" citation displayed first.
  • Similar articles are generated by comparing words from the title, abstract, and MeSH terms using a word-weighted algorithm.
  • Filters are not activated for similar articles.
  • You can refine the list of similar articles using your search History, where the similar articles retrieval is represented as a list of PMIDs. Use this search number in a search. Refining the list removes the ranked order and may remove citations that are most relevant.

Citation Status Subsets

To search for a particular citation status, enter one of the search terms below followed by the [sb] search tag:

  • publisher
  • inprocess
  • medline
  • pubmednotmedline

To search for the total number of PubMed citations, enter all[sb] in the search box.

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